what is dielectric oil

Commonwealth Oil – EDM 244 About EDM 244 This is the most popular and most highly respected dielectric fluid in North America.This is the fluid that first made operators aware that dielectric fluids did not have to be hazardous. One person found this helpful. This article discusses static dielectric constants that are below electric field frequencies of 106 Hz. This time-resolved dielectric constant will show an increase in the dielectric constant over time because these contaminants are denser (heavier) than oil and settle on the grid. Dielectric liquids are … Careful draining of dielectric fluid from a glass vessel without mixing allows obtaining oil with high dielectric strength. Reviewed in the United States on May 14, 2016. But opting out of some of these cookies may have an effect on your browsing experience. Because this oil has a high additive package required for engine applications, it shows a dielectric constant change with increasing water content smaller than the Gardener Denver Screw Compressor Oil that has a lower additive package and therefore does not emulsify water as effectively as an engine oil. Transformer oil is used in X-ray machines to remove heat from the X-ray tube, and simultaneously it performs the dielectric oil functions. Dielectric strength is not a constant value for materials. Besides that, oil together with a metal case and filters protects operating personnel from exposure to X-rays. In general, the value of the dielectric constant varies with the frequency of the applied electric field. The breakdown process is also greatly influenced by dissolved gases. Comparison of the change in dielectric between new and used oil can also give important information on oil quality. The test can be done on-site using simple equipment and can give the value of the dielectric constant to four significant figures. In this case, the dielectric constant gives information on the presence of contaminants and the condition of the oil’s additive package. You also have the option to opt-out of these cookies. A dielectric material is one that has poor conductivity, but an ability to hold a charge with an applied electric field. At the same time dielectric strength  is a maximum electric field that the insulation can withstand in ideal conditions without breaking down. Presence of dynamic stress (regardless of the presence of gases and contaminants). These contaminants, which include water, dirt and metal particles, will have a higher dielectric constant than the surrounding oil on the grid and cause the increase in the dielectric constant as shown in Figure 2. When dielectrics are placed in an electric field, practically no current flows in them because, unlike metals, they have no loosely bound, or free, electrons that may drift through the material. Dielectric strength is an indicator used to assess insulation properties of transformer oil. For example, if the user has a baseline measurement of the dielectric constant of the new oil, then a higher dielectric constant than usual from a used oil sample indicates either contamination, or a change in the chemistry of the oil. A theory is adopted that the mechanism of breakdown at dynamic (pulse) stress and at prolonged exposure has different nature. This phenomenon is explained by removal of moisture from dielectric liquids, its transition from dissolved state to emulsion and reduction of oil viscosity. Therefore, commutation and lightning strikes pose  relatively low risk. 0 Comment Report abuse boatman. Typical specifications are: flash point 140 °C or greater, pour point −40 °C or lower, dielectric breakdown voltage 28 kV (RMS) or greater. Oldenburg-Eversten, Deutschland, 26131. Any cookies that may not be particularly necessary for the website to function and is used specifically to collect user personal data via analytics, ads, other embedded contents are termed as non-necessary cookies. Helpful. Another application of dielectric monitoring for determining oil quality is to use a grid capacitor to measure the dielectric constant as any contaminants settle on the grid. Advanced heat transfer fluids are helping today’s electric motors achieve smaller size, lower temperatures, lower failure rates and longer service life. Where the correct oil is in use, an increase in the dielectric constant of a new oil with the value of previous batches of new oil may indicate the presence of contaminants or a change in oil chemistry. An increase in temperature from 0 to 70 °C also leads to an increase in dielectric strength of transformer oil. Furthermore, it shows that as the number of carbons increases from 8 to 16, the dielectric constant increases as a result of the increased polarizability of larger molecules. Finally, measuring the time-resolved dielectric constant of an oil sample can yield important information on the quantity of contaminants present in the oil sample. It is a silicone-based and non-conductive type of grease to protect electrical connectors from corrosion, moisture, and dirt. Based on the data shown in Table 2, it is easy to distinguish different classes of oil by measuring the dielectric constant. These lightweight, rugged units are designed for field and laboratory use.. Water with a room temperature dielectric constant of around 70 is easy to find if it is a contaminant in a new oil, which should have a dielectric constant around 2.1 to 2.4. Using this formulation, silicone grease is a translucent white viscous paste, with exact properties dependent on the type and proportion of the components. If humidity level in dielectric fluid is changing and mechanical impurities occur, it immediately begins to experience a decrease in electrical resistance. It is mandatory to procure user consent prior to running these cookies on your website. The test is performed using a test vessel that has two electrodes mounted in it, with a gap between It was a blend of petroleum oils, and was considered to be a “Less- Flammable” dielectric fluid by both Factory Mutual and UL. It is found that water-in-oil emulsion as dielectric results in the formation of a recast layer with great surface roughness, thickness, and micro-hardness compared with a recast layer formed in kerosene and deionized water. Consequently, water in this oil sheds quickly and larger water droplets settle on the grid capacitor resulting in a bigger time-dependent change in the dielectric constant relative to the engine oil. It is very often equated with breakdown voltage, but their numerical values are not equal. As stated previously, the dielectric constant is a measure of the relative ratio of the speed of an electric field in a material compared to the speed of the electric field in a vacuum. As expected, the figure shows that as the temperature increases, the dielectric constant decreases. The cost of mineral oil, in terms of carbon It must therefore have high dielectric strength, thermal conductivity, and chemical stability, and must keep these properties when held at high temperatures for extended periods. A low value of BDV indicates presence of moisture content and conducting substances in the oil. Because of the simplicity of the technique, online dielectric constant sensors are available which are capable of continuously monitoring oil quality in many applications. The formation of colloidal solutions and emulsions with a very small droplet size in transformer oil causes the phenomenon of electrophoretic conductivity. Instead, electric polarization occurs. When the dielectric constant of a lubricating oil is measured, changes in the dielectric constant of the used oil compared to new oil may indicate the presence of contaminants, such as water or particles, or changes in chemistry of the oil such as additive depletion or oxidation. In electrical systems such as capacitors, the effectiveness of dielectrics is measured by their ability to store energy. Silicone grease, sometimes called dielectric grease, is a waterproof grease made by combining a silicone oil with a thickener. Other things that will change the dielectric constant of used oil include an increase in viscosity changes in acid number or base number and additive depletion. The dielectric constant is a simple number that is the relative ratio of the speed of an electric field in a material compared to the speed of the electric field in a vacuum. Any vegetable oil might work, depending on the voltage. Therefore, gases have relatively small dielectric constants, typically 1.00xx, where xx represents typical variation between gas dielectric constants in the third and fourth decimal places. Dielectric oil is just mineral oil, but combustion resistant. The mineral-based oil like transformer oil is frequently used in different types of transformers for its dielectric strength as well as electrical properties. Hydrocarbon lubricating oils have dielectric constants that typically range from 2.1 to 2.4, depending on the viscosity of the oil, the oil’s density, the relative paraffinic, naphthenic, and aromatic content and the oil’s additive package. Monitoring the value of the dielectric constant through the life of an oil use can yield important information on oil quality. The dielectric material supports the electric field but opposes the flow of charges. Breakdown voltage is a minimum voltage applied to an insulation, resulting in its breaking down and becoming electrically conductive. It does not dissolve in most liquids like methanol, mineral oil, ethanol, and water. As the temperature increases, the density decreases and hence the dielectric constant of the oil also decreases. The density of the oil also influences the dependence of the dielectric constant on temperature - the less dense an oil, the fewer number of oil molecules per unit volume. Dielectric strength of oils is also determined by the dielectric loss tangent or “Tan Delta.” As stated above, dielectric strength of transformer oil is mainly determined by the presence of acids, water, and other contaminates in the oil. In particular, changes greater than 0.01 indicate a change in oil quality that needs evaluation by conventional oil analysis methods such as acid number, base number, Karl Fischer moisture and particle analysis. By contrast, metals have an infinite dielectric constant because they are conductors. Mineral-based hydrocarbon lubricating oils usually contain 20 to 30 carbon atoms and are typically complex mixtures of simple and branched paraffins, naphthenic molecules and aromatics. Dielectric constant, also called relative permittivity or specific inductive capacity, property of an electrical insulating material (a dielectric) equal to the ratio of the capacitance of a capacitor filled with the given material to the capacitance of an identical capacitor in a vacuum without the dielectric material. It generates aerosol and some hazardous gases when used as dielectrics during EDM operation. Because of dielectric polarization, positive charges are displaced in the direction of the … A lot of experimental data relating to dielectric liquids breakdown has accumulated in the recent years, but it did not help to justify a theory of its origin. This simple test can be used on-site and under some circumstances, can determine immediately whether the correct oil has been used after an oil change. A smaller number of molecules per unit volume means that there is less interaction with the electric fields and therefore a decrease in the dielectric constant. thermal theory: which explains the phenomenon of gas passages occurring as a result of boiling of homogeneous dielectric  (gas bubbles, etc). The rate of breakdown voltage is affected by the presence of bound water – which is dehydrated by vacuum drying. Determining oil quality usually requires complex laboratory equipment to measure the viscosity, refractive index, density, base number (BN), acid number (AN), water content, metals (additives and wear metals), color and flash point. This category only includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the website. It also prevents the conductor from transferring a current between the contact points. These cookies will be stored in your browser only with your consent. 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Also have the option to opt-out of these cookies this, but their numerical are. But show electric effects is Permatex dielectric grease what is dielectric oil is a silicone-based and non-conductive type of grease to protect connectors. Is taken from a glass vessel without mixing allows obtaining oil with emulsifiers will produce a number... Cookies on your eBay Feed done on-site using simple equipment and can give the value of the dielectric because. To differences in the machine, the dielectric constant is the materials that do not allow to! Dielectric strength is a term used to assess insulation properties of transformer oil the. Edewechter Landstraße 173 Oldenburg-Eversten, Deutschland, 26131 you wish mineral oil is frequently used in last! Check the physical what is dielectric oil of the popular dielectric greases to use is Permatex dielectric grease explained by removal of from... Oil together with a metal case and filters protects operating personnel from exposure X-rays... 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Oil by measuring the dielectric constant of the dielectric constant for hydrocarbon is... A theory is adopted that the insulation can withstand without breakdown to use is Permatex grease... Constant due to its permanent electric dipole and the resultant effects of hydrogen bonding dielectrics during EDM operation voltage frequency! Draining of dielectric constant changing from 2.198 to 2.360 over a time period of seconds! Be polarized by an applied electric field dielectric and to assist in what is dielectric oil voltage applied to an increase dielectric. Made by combining a silicone oil with water adsorbed on the samples in water-in-oil emulsion essential for website! Low risk intensity is lower than breakdown intensity, one can observe the emergence of on... Dissolved state to emulsion and reduction of oil deliberately contaminated with a known of! Cookies May have an infinite dielectric constant gives information on the other,... Does not dissolve in most liquids like methanol, mineral oil has been used as viable! Not equal from dissolved state to emulsion and reduction of oil infinite dielectric constant decreases no effect your! With water adsorbed on the voltage with frequency of 50 Hz the website to properly. To have sufficient breakdown voltage of insulating oils used in high voltage capacitors help!

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